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English for Fun (Part 2)


Ni catatan waktu bimbel bahasa inggris beberapa tahun yang lalu dari pada di lupain mending posting di sini aja biar ada manfaatnya,,
Mbak dan Mas tentor ijin Posting yaaa,,,hehehe...

COCORD/AGREEMENT(Penyesuaian Kata)

TRICK 1

  • THE NOUN
  • THE NUMBER + VERB/AUX VERB(TUNGGAL)
  • SOME

TRICK 2

  • EACH OF
  • ONE OF
  • NONE + NOUN JAMAK + VERB/AUX VERB(TUNGGAL)
  • EITHER
  • NEITHER

TRICK 3

  • EITHER + NOUN 1 + OR + NOUN 2 + VERB/AUX VERB
  • NEITHER + NOUN 1 + NOR + NOUN 2 + VERB/AUX VERB

NOTE: NOUN 2 YANG MENENTUKAN PREDIKATNYA

TRICK 4

  • VERB-ING + NOUN JAMAK + VERB/AUX VERB

NOTE: PREDIKET TERGANTUNG JUMLAH GERUNDNYA

TRICK 5

  • UKURAN JARAK
  • WAKTU
  • UANG + VERB/BE(TUNGGAL)
  • PERSENTASE
  • PERBANDINGAN
    • Everybody,Everyone,Nobody,None,Anyone predikat TUNGGAL kata ganti JAMAK.
    • Beberapa kata yang bentuk JAMAK selalu di gunakan predikat TUNGGAL(permainan:Cards,plajaran:mathematics).
    • Nama Judul Buku,Beberapa Kata yang di Satukan,dianggap TUNGGAL.
    • THE NUMBER OF di anggap tunggal A NUMBER OF dianggap jamak.
    • COLLECTIVE NOUNS di anggap TUNGGAL jika di pandang sebagai SATU KESATUAN,dianggap JAMAK bila MENUNJUKKAN pada ANGGOTA-ANGGOTANYA…….
    • ……OF….,PREDIKET tergantung kata SEBELUM OF "tunggal/jamak"

SUBJUNCTIVE

1 PRESENT SUBJUNTIVE

Kalimat subjuntive
inienunjukan keadaan sekarang kata kerja yang selalu digunakan SIMPLE PAST TENSE
dan To Be yang selalu di gunakan WERE.

Ex:I wish I were a student in Gajah Mada unversity

2 PAST SUBJUNTIFE

Kalimat ini menunjukkan keadaan di waktu lampau kata kerja yang di gunakan past perfec tense.

Ex:If Only I had met you before I left our city

Subjuntive menggunakan kata-kata sebagai berikut:

  • Wish(ingin),If Only(jika,hanya jika)Would Rather(lebih suka) → Menyatakan Keinginan
  • As If,As Tough(seolah-olah) → Menyatakan Sifat/Keadaan yang Tidak Benar Adanya

CODITIONAL

TRICK 1

  • IF + SUBJEK +V.1, S + M.1 + V.1

Ex:If I have much money I should continue my school in abroad

Fakta:bersifat kemungkinan,probably,may be.

TRICK 2

  • IF + SUBJEK +V.2/WERE +S + M2 + V.1

Ex: If I prepeared well for the test I should pass.

Fact:I don't pass the test

Fakta:berkebalikan dengan pernyataan memakai prediket present

TRICK 3

  • IF + SUBJEK + HAD + V3 +S+ M.2 + HAVE +
    V.3

Ex:If he hadn't beaten the dog,it might not have died

Fact:The dog died

Fakta:berkebalikan dengan pernyataan prediket di ganti dengan past tense

TRICK 4

  • TIDAK MENGGUNAKAN IF MAKA KATA KERJA ATAU KATA BANTU DI LETAKKAN SEBELUM SUBJEK….

Ex: If I were a rich person,I should buy every thing that I need

CAUSATIVE

TRICK 1

A

  • HAVE
  • MAKE + ORANG/OBJEK AKTIF +VERB 1
  • LET

Ex: I have my sister wash my uniform

B

  • HAVE
  • MAKE + BENDA + V 3
  • LET

Ex:I have my uniform washed

TRICK 2

A

  • GET
  • ORDER + ORANG/OBJEK AKTIF + TO V 1
  • ASK
  • TELL

Ex:She orders a designer to make a beatiful dress for her

B

  • GET
  • ORDER
    + BENDA + VERB 3
  • ASK
  • LET

Ex:She orders a beautiful dress made

"MEANING: S + TELL/ORDER/LET/ASK/COMAND/+OBJEK + TO V 1"

PASSIVE VOICE

TRICK1

  • TO BE + V3

Ex:I was told about secret story.

Apabila suatu kalimat terdapat dua objek ,maka keduanya dapat dijadikan subjek pada kalimat pasif

Ex: Father gave me much money

P1:Much money was given to me

P2:I was given much money

TRICK 2

  • ……..,YET
  • NOT YET
  • WHEN……NOUN + TO BE + BEING + V3
  • WHILE
  • NOW
  • AT THE MOMENT

Ex: The computer was being repaired when I came

TRICK 3

  • NOUN NEED + TO + BE + V3

Ex: The story need to rewritten again

TRICK 4

  • MUST HAVE
  • MIGHT HAVE + BEEN + V3
  • SHOULD HAVE

Ex:The book must have been taken by some one

TRICK 5

  • LOOK FORWARD + TO+BEING V3+BY USED TO

TRICK 6

  • NOUN

+ TO + BE +V3

  • WAIT

Ex:She hasn't much money to be saved in the bank

CONJUNCTION

TRICK1:

NH SBY

Adfersatife/berlawanan:

  • Neverthless: NAMUN
  • However: AKAN TETAPI
  • Yet/Still: NAMUN
  • But: TAPI
  • Only: HANYA
  • While: SEDANGKAN
  • Wheares: MENGINGAT

TRICK2

MIA BF

PENAMBAHAN
  • More Over
  • In Addition
  • And
  • Becide
  • Futher More

TRICK3

BASF

  • Because
  • As
  • Since
  • For

TRICK4

EAT

  • Eventough
  • Altough
  • Tough
  • Inspite(untuk frase)
  • Despite(untuk frase)

CONJUNTION YANG LAINYA

  • IN STEAD OF:DARI PADA
  • OTHERWISE:JIKA TIDAK
  • ON THE CONTARARY/THE OTHER HAND:SEBALIKNYA

PARTICIPLE

Menunjukkan keadan/aktif atau Pasif sebagai penjelas kata benda
  • Present partisiple menyatakan kegiatan aktif,menggunakan: VERB 1+ING
  • Past participle menyatakan kegiatan aktif,menggunakan: VERB 3

Beberapa fungsi "participle":

  • Sebagai penjelas kata banda: NOUN + V-ING/V3 atau A/AN/THE
    V-ING/3 NOUN

    Ex:One of The car bought by my uncle was broken

  • Setelah kata kerja tertentu seperti kata kerja indrawi dengan pola kalimat: SLOW Not FLASH + O + V-ING/V1(AKTIF) //V3(PASIF)

    Smell Listen Observe Feel Find Keep Cacth

    Notice Look at Watch See
    Hear

Ex: I hear him singing loudly(yang sedang terjadi)

3.Penjelas klausa :

PARTICIPLE,KLAUSA(SUBJEK+PREDIKET)

  • V-ING,V3 + …..,CLAUSA

Ex: Being sick,She didn't go to school

ARTI:

  • SUATU YANG DILAKUKAN BERSAMAAN(WHEN,WHILE)
  • PERSITIWA YANG TERJADI AKIBAT PERISTIWA PERTAMA(BASF)
  • HAVING + V3/BEEN….,CLAUSA

Ex:Having graduated senior high school,She continued her study in university

ARTI:

"MENUNJUKAN PERISTIWA YANG BERLANGSUNG BERURUTAN(AFTER)

GERUND

Kata benda yang di bentuk dari V-ing

Fungsi GERUND:

  1. SEBAGAI SUBJEK:
    V-ING + P + C/O
  2. SEBGAI KOMPLEMEN:
    S + TO BE + V-ING
  3. SEBAGAI OBJEK UNTUK VERB TERTENTU:
    FiFa"MAS DAR CUAKEP DECH"+O(V-ING)

    Finish Fancy forgive Mind Admait Appreciate Denay Delay Detest Resist Risk Concider Continue Keep Enjoy Excuse Postpone Practise Pardon Prevent Undertand.Aviod Anticipate Avoid Neglect

    Ex: The students have finised doing the exercises

  4. OBJEK POSESIVE:
    POSSESIVE + V-ING
  5. OBJEK PREPOSISI(KATA DEPAN):
    PREPOSISI + V-ING/BEING

Pengecualian pada kata TO pala kalimatnya yang menggunakan gerund:

TOGEL 2 BE + TO + V-ING

Take To/Object To/Get Used To/Look Forward To/BE USED TO/BE ACCUSTOMED TO

ReFoReST: TO + V1 (Belum Dilakukan)//// V-ING(Sudah Dilakukan)

Advice Allow Attempt Begin Continue Hate Like Intend Love Prefer

GERUND PASSIVE: S(benda pasive)+WaRN+V-ING////TO+BE+V3

INVINITIVE

A. BARE INFINITIVE

  • Setelah kata kerja panca indra yang berlangsung dari awal sampai akhir


B. TO INFINITIVE

  • Sebagai Subjek

To + V 1 + P/O

Ex:To drive a car safely needs a good brake

  • WANAV + TO + V1
  • W -H QOESTIONS
  • A VERB
  • N OUN
  • A DJECTIVES
  • V ERB

Ex:I don't know why She doesn't go to my party

  • Setelah Kata-kata kerja Tertentu

    BINI MUDA PROTES + TO + V1

Want

Beg

Mean

Propose/mise

Allow

Intend

Urge

Require

Advice

Need

Decide

Tell/teach

Hope

Invite

Ask

Expect

Support

SARAN/KEPENTINGAN HARAPAN

ADIP RESAH NIE + THAT + S + V1/BE V

  • Advice,demine,insist,dropor,recomand,espect,
  • suggest,ask,hope,neccecary,important,essensial,stop.

Ex:My father suggest that I study hard

CSP

  • THAT/WHO
  • WHETHER/IF
  • 5W + H
  • THE TIME WHEN/ON WHICH
  • THE PLEACE WHERE/IN WHICH
  • THE REASON WHY
  • THE WAY HOW

Ex: I forget the time when She went to my home

VOCABOLARY AND DERIVATION

A.VERB

Posisi:

  1. Setelah kata:PLEASE,LET'S or DON'T + V-1
  2. Antara SUBJEK dan OBJEK

Affixs dari kata kerja:
-en en- -ize -ze -fy -efy -ve -d

B.NOUN

Posisi:

  1. Sebagai SUBJEK dan OBJEK
  2. Determine(kata yang terletak sebelum objek)yaitu:
    1. Kata Sifat Jumlah/Quantitative:Some,Many,Variuos,Few,ect
    2. Kata Ganti Tunjuk/Demonstrative:That,Such,Another
    3. Possessive
    4. Article:A,The

    Both,no,every,each,several,more,nither,all,one,

Affixs dari kata benda: -ment -ion -tion -ation -ance -ence -t -er/or/ist -ure/tur/ture –y/ery/ary.

C.ADJECTIVE

Posisi:

  1. Setelah Linking Verb: Look,Sound,Seem,Appear,Grow,Feel.
  2. Antara DETERMINE dan NOUN
  3. Setalah TO BE

Affixs dari kata sifat: -y -ly -ful -less -ous -ious -ic/etic/atic -ish -en -able/ible –tive/ive/ative –ing

Setelah/ KK → Verb Much + more/er + than

Setelah be → Adj

A KK
ADJ NOUN

A NOUN OF

Altough membandingan dalam satu kalimat:Altough………..,……..

However membandingkan Dalam dua kalimat: ……….however…….

DeSSASCOMP

Determine,Subjektive,Size,Age,Shape,Color,Origin,Material,Participle + Hate

CLAUSE

THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

Fungsi sebagai penjelas.

  1. Who/That + V

    The girl Who/That/ comes from flores is our new friend

    Whom + S + V

    The girl whom/that/Φ we met is a manager

    Whose + Benda → Untuk orang

    The girl whose purse was lost reported the case the police officer

  2. That/which + V + O

S + V

Ex: The knife which/that/Φ my mother cut meat with is very sharp

  1. Whose + Benda



SUBJECT

OBJECT

POSSESIVE

PERSON

Who,That

Whom,That,Φ

Whose

THING

Which,That

Which,that, Φ

Whose,Of Which

Boleh dihilangkan bila memakai presposisi Φ

That tidak boleh dipakai pada kalimat berkoma

Whose = Of Which

Yang memiliki preposisi adjective clause tidak ada yang bisa dihilangkan

Person/Thing + preposisi + Adj Clause +……..


TENSES

  1. Present
  2. Simple Present Tense

    Pola Kalimat:

S + V1 + ……..

I,You,We,They

S + V + s/es + …….

He,She,It

S+Is/Are + N/C

Ex: My uncle doesn't go to office every morning

Fungsi : menyatakan kebenaran umum,kebiasaan yang masih berlangsung,bahasa drama

Ket waktu:Every,three times,occassionaly,now and then,now days,abitually,frequently,some times

Often,seldom

  1. Present Continuous Tense

    Pola Kalimat:

S + TO BE + V-ing

Ex: I am writting english summary now

My sister isn't studying in university this year

Fugsi:Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung waktu sekarang/menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tapi belum tentu berlangsung ketika pernyataan di kemukakan.

Ker waktu:Now,at the moment,right now,this evening,today,(Look!,Listen!,Watch!Notice)

Catatan:beberapa kata kerja yang tidak dapat dalam bentuk continuous

  • Kata kerja panca indra:feel,hear,see,smell,notice,observe
  • Perasaan/emosi:adore,appreciate,care,detest,fear,hate,like,love,mind,want,wish
  • Berhub aktifitas mental:Agree,believe,expect,forget,know, mean,perceive

relize,recall,recognize

  1. Present Perfect Tense

Pola Kalmat:

S + Have/Has + V3

S+Have/Has+been+N/complement


Ex: She has studied in university for six years

Fungsi:Menyatakan pebuatan yang terjadi di masa lampau yang waktunya yidak diketahui

Menyatakan perbuatan yang mungkin terulang lagi

Menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai dimasa lampau yang telah berakhir waktu bicara

Ket Waktu:Since,For,Just,Lately,recently,as yet/so far/up to present(hingga kini)

  1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Pola kalimat:

S+Have/Has+been+V-ing

Ex:My father has been working in garden all the morning

Fungsi:menyatakan peristiwa yang berlangsung di masa lampau dan masih berlangsung di masa

Dan berkemungkinan dilanjutkan dimasa yang akan datang.

Untuk kata kerja 'Live'mempunyai arti yang sama dengan 'Present Perfect'

Ket Waktu:For,Since,The whole day,for the last,for…now

  1. Past
  2. Simple Past Tense

    Pola Kalimat:

S + was/were+N/C

S+V2 +…..

Ex:I didn't come to our house last week

She was a student two years ago

Fungsi:Menyatakan peristiwa yang berlangsung di masa lampau.

Menyatakan kebiasaan di masa lampau

Ket Waktu:Last…,….Ago,This morning,Just now

  1. Past Continuous Tense

    Pola Kalimat:

S+was/were+V-ing

Ex:I was sleeping when a tief came in to my house

Fungsi:Menyatakan peristiwa yang berlangsung di masa lampau.

Menyatakan peristiwa yang terjadi diselingi oleh peristiwa lain dimasa lampau.

Bentuk was/were going to menyatakan keinginan dimasa lampau tapi tak terlaksana

  1. Past perfect Tense

    Pola Kalimat:

S + Had + V-3

Fungsi:Menyataka peristiwa yang terjadi sebelum peristiwa lain terjadi di masa lampau

Ex: I did my home work after I had repaired my toy that is broken.

Menyatakan peristiwa yang terjadi selama periode tertentu/berulang kali hingga peristiwa lain

terjadi di masa lampau.

Ex:I had watched for an hour when she came


Ket Waktu:

Past Perfect+When+Past Tense

P tense + After + PP

PP + before + P tense

d.Past Perfect Continuous

Pola Kalimat:

S + Had + been + V-ing

Ex:We had been working in a company for a year when the world war broke out

Fungsi:Menyatakan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi sebelum/ketika peristiwa lain terjadi di masa lampau.

  1. Future
  2. Future Tense

    Pola Kalimat:

S + Shall/Will + V-1

Shall:We,I

Ex:My brother Will go to his girl friend's house

Fungsi:Menyataka peristiwa yang akan terjadi,menyatakan kehendak(semua S memakai Will)

  1. Future Continuous Tense:

    Pola Kalimat:

S + Shall/Will + be + V-ing

Fungsi:Menyatakan peristiwa yang akan sedang terjadi ketika peristiwa lain yang terjadi dimasa datang masih berlangsung

Ex:When you meet me at two o'clock I Shall be doing my home work

Menyatakan dua kejadian yang sama-sama terjadi dimasa yang akan datang.

Ket Waktu:When/While + Clause(Present/Future Tense),Next….,Tomorrow

  1. Future Perfect Tense

    Pola kalimat:

S + Shall/Will + Have + V3

Ex:By the end of this year I shall have finished my work

Fungsi:Menyatakan peristiwa yang akan telah terjadi dimasa yang akan datang sebelum peristiwa berikutnya

Terjadi.

Ket Waktu: by then,by…..,by the end of…,in two weeks/months

Before + clause(present),when + clause(present)

  1. Future Pervest Continuous Tense

    Pola Kalimat:

S + Shall/Will + Have + been+V-ing

Ex:She will have been living in the city for five years by the end this year.

Ket Waktu:

By + ket waktu+…..for + ket waktu

Next+ket waktu+….for+ket waktu

When+ket waktu+…for+ket waktu


DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Perubahan kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tak langsung terjadi pada pronoun,tense,adverb,dan susunan kalimat

Perubahan Kalimat Langsung Menjadi Tak Langsung

  1. Perubahan Pronoun

    Ex: She tells him"I am as old as you."

    She tells him that she is as old as he.

  2. Perubahan Tenses

    Ex:He explained"I buy some books in the book store."

He explaned that he bought in the book store

Perubahan tenses di sebabkan bentuk kata kerja yang di gunakan untuk menuturkan(introductory verb)

Jika Introductory Verb nya present maka tensesnya tak berubah Jika introductory nya Past:

Kalimat Langsung

Kalimat Tak Langsung

Present

Past tense

Past Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Pengecualian:

  1. Konditional Tipe Dua pada Kalimat Subjuntive

    Ex:He said"if I had much money,I would continue my study in adroad"

    He said that if He had much money,he would continue his study in abroad

  2. Kata Kerja Bentuk Simple Present Tense yang Menyatakan Kebenaran Umum

    Ex:He Said"The moon raises at night.'

He Said That moon raises at night

  1. Modal Past Tense:would,should,had better,used to,might,could

    Ex:She said"I could speak english when I were in senior high school."

Sha Said that she could speak english whan she was in senior high school

  1. Must untuk Menyatakan Pernyataan Umum

    Ex:She said we mustn't drive against the red light

    She said that they musn't drive against the red light

  1. Perubahan Adverb

Kalimat Langsung

Kalimat Tak Langsung

now

Then

today

That day

yesterday

The day before

The day before yesterday

Two days before

Tomorrow

The next day/following day

The day after tomorrow

In two days time

Next

Following

Ago

Before

Here

There

This week

That week

Ex:Anto said"my best friend died a year ago

Anto said that his best friend had died a year before

  1. Perubahan Susunan Kalimat

    Kalimat tanya langsung berubah menjadi kalimat berita

    Ex:He said"When does our mother go home?"

    He asked When their mother went home.

    She said"may I borrow your computer"

    She asked whether/if she might borrowed my computer

  2. Perubahan Bentuk Invinitive

    My father said"do your homework" → My father asked me to do my homework

Modal and Modal Perfect


Modal

Fungsi Menyatakan

Modal Perfect

Fungsi Menyatakan

Can

Kemampuan/menyatakan izin

Must + have + V3

Suatu kepastian

Could

Kemampuan di wkt lampau

Might + have + V3

Kemungkinan di masa lampau

May

Kemungkinan/izin

Sould + have + V3

Saran di masa lampau

Might

Kemungkinan besar

Could + have +V3

Kemampuan di masa lampau

Must

Kebutuhan/Kesimpulan